What is myopia?
Myopia is a refractive visual disorder that occurs when the eye is too long. The image forms in front of the retina and the near-sighted person sees a blur in the distance.
What is myopia?
Myopia causes blurred vision at a distance, which cannot be compensated for with visual strain. On the other hand, near vision is clear: the greater the myopia, the more it is necessary to approach objects to see them clearly.
What are the means of screening for myopia?
Myopia is detected by examining visual acuity, followed by refraction. In children and young adults, the use of cycloplegia drops, which temporarily paralyse the focusing power of the eye (accommodation) is most often necessary to obtain a reliable measurement of myopia. Early detection and treatment of refractive disorders is essential in children to prevent amblyopia.
What are the treatments?
Myopia can be corrected with glasses with concave (negative) lenses, contact lenses or, in adults, refractive laser surgery. In children, the progression of myopia can in some cases be slowed by the instillation of very diluted Atropine eye drops, or by the use of certain types of contact lenses.
What are the risk factors?
The presence of myopia in the family is a risk factor. If both parents are near-sighted, their child is 8x more likely to develop myopia as well.
In recent years, there has been a significant increase in myopia among young people. This is probably related to the amount of time spent indoors in artificial light, as well as the excess work in near vision, for example on smartphone screens. The simplest recommendations to reduce the risk of the appearance or deterioration of myopia are to spend at least one hour outside in natural light every day and to avoid reading or looking at your smartphone too closely. A reading distance greater than 30 cm is recommended.
What are the complications associated with myopia?
Severe myopia can be complicated by retinal detachment, glaucoma, macular problems, or early cataracts. Regular ophthalmological monitoring is therefore essential.